Ms. Rina Krautwirth

Protecting against the Unseen: Rabbinic (Chazal’s) Approach to Chemical and Biological Hazards 

Public health, which concerns the health and well-being of populations as a whole, in modern times includes investigations into the effects of chemicals and biologics on the health of populations. Although Chazal did not have the modern scientific tools to ascertain the nature of specific chemicals and biologics, nevertheless the gemara does address these two components of public health and their potentially harmful effects. Even in advance of modern times, Chazal established certain regulations to protect against chemical and biological hazards, regulations that today would constitute public health measures. Since parallel concerns often arise within Chazal’s realm and modern practice, their approach can inform current perspectives.This presentation will analyze Chazal’s approach toward several different public health issues that involve chemicals and biologics, such as water quality, water contamination, pathogen disbursement, air pollution, foodborne toxins, and nutrition, all of which remain public health issues today as well. For example, Chazal recognized the importance of water quality and issued injunctions against water contamination. Similarly, they established regulations against air pollution from tanneries, kilns, and threshing floors. With regard to pathogens, they recognized some of the ways by which pathogens spread and took preventative measures against those means of transmission. Chazal also offered regulations against food contamination. Additionally, they worked to gain an understanding of nutrition and offered dietary recommendations.  ​A better understanding of how Chazal addressed these public health issues in their time can serve as a model for us to address the public health challenges that we might face today.